Sustainable Development and Energy and Environmental Interactions | By CAN BUZLUTEPE
I graduated from the Faculty of Technical Training of Marmara University with a bachelor’s degree in Electrical Teaching in 2012. In the course of his education life, i worked in Vodafone Turkey Corporate Services, Çelebi Ground Handling and in Turkish Airlines as a Ground Operation Coordinator.
I carried out some studies on such topics as Sustainable Development and Energy and Environmental Interactions in the course of his university life. And another point worth mentioning is that İ had my bachelor’s degree completed with a thesis entitled as “Renewable Energy Resources and Environmental Interactions in Turkey as a Developing Country.”
I participated in the “Higher Colleges of Technology Dubai Men’s College 6th Education without Borders 2011” organization, hosted by United Arab Emirates, as a project owner about Sustainable Development. And he also participated in the “3rd United Nations Alliance of Civilizations 2012” organization, held in Lisbon & Braga, Portugal, as a project owner and facilitator about Sustainability on Environment.
Now I am a master degree student of Production Management and Marketing of Marmara University. I believe we can create new brands and new conception of new life style with sustainable cycle.
My activities are researching about popular art and popular sciences, swimming and books about history & trips. I really enjoy with abroad travelling that helps me to teach new cultures.
SUBJECT: Sustainable Development about Environment and Energy for Developing Countries
Abstract – International Money Fund (IMF) published a report about countries and their developing rank. One hundred and fifty three countries of the world are only developing countries. If we look for their economic, socio-cultural and developing level aren’t enough to leap the next level as developed countries. Especially economic condition is primer problem interacted with other problems. But the countries need the solutions to save and leap to next level. The countries must do something, by oneself or together. We know the basic and easiest way for these countries this goal can be “sustainable development with environment and energy “Especially these countries need to be grown in each day with industry so they need energy more and more. This energy increasing ; 540 million kWh for a day, 175 billion kWh for a year for Turkey. Turkey is one country of the developing countries reported by International Money Fund . Is energy producing by Turkey as by oneself enough to develop and to be industrialized? Or for another developing country? Of Course! If you have people liked to exhaust.
Increasingly use of energy causes pollution and consumes more natural resources. Fossil energy resources are limited and not environment friendly and this makes the increasingly use of energy more and more significant condition. New clean energy technologies are developed while people are more conscious about environment.
Sustainable development can be summarized for three fundamental characters; ecological environmet, economy and society-continuing , rather than being independent  . Education that helps to increase human consciousness and make people so sensitive for how to save our planet by this way. Also education in universities and institutes help to develop for creating new technologies to save our planet too.
New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables . 
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, using wind turbines to produce electricity, wind mills for mechanical power. Benefits to publish dam for wind power ;
• Emission of polluting gases in the atmosphere has not been affected,
• Clearly energy production ,
• Don’t run out of resources ,
• Installation of wind facilities and operation are easier than other installations ,
• Low energy production costs, ,
• Increased reliability
Solar power is the generation of electricity from sunlight. This can be direct as with photovoltaic (PV), or indirect as with concentrating solar power (CSP), where the sun’s energy is focused to boil water which is then used to provide power.
Abu Dhabi is considering a proposal to use solar-energy equipment on rooftops in the city to generate about 500MW of power . The capital also aims to generate 1,500MW of electricity, or seven per cent of total demand, from renewable energy sources by 2020 [ 3 ].
Geothermal energy (from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat) is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries. An additional 28 gigawatts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications. Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly .
Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal electric plants were traditionally built exclusively on the edges of tectonic plates where high temperature geothermal resources are available near the surface.
The development of binary cycle power plants and improvements in drilling and extraction technology enable enhanced geothermal systems over a much greater geographical range. The thermal efficiency of geothermal electric plants is low, around 10-23%, because geothermal fluids do not reach the high temperatures of steam from boilers. [ 4 ]
Biomass is biological material from living, or recently living organisms, such as wood, waste, (hydrogen) gas, and alcohol fuels. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. In this sense, living biomass can also be included, as plants can also generate electricity while still alive. [ 5 ]
Biomass resources can be ;
• Forest crops and residues
• Industrial residues
• Municipal solid waste
• Animal residues
• Agricultural crops and residues
Biomass energy is derived from five distinct energy sources: garbage, wood, waste, landfill gases, and alcohol fuels. Waste energy is the second-largest source of biomass energy. The main contributors of waste energy are municipal solid waste (MSW), manufacturing waste, and landfill gas. On combustion, the carbon from biomass is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2) . The amount of carbon stored in dry wood is approximately 50% by weight. [ 6 ]
Why Biogas ?
• Conversion of natural organic waste into fertilizer: The conversion is carried out in a machine called the polythene bio gas digester. Cow dung slurry is put into the machine. The product is organic fertilizer of high quality.
• Eco friendly energy production: The calorific value of biogas is equal to that of half liter of diesel oil (6 kWh/m3).
• Biogas is fully capable of replacing other rural energy sources like wood, hard coal, kerosene, plant residues, and propane.
• Hard coal possesses a calorific value of 8.5kWh/kg per 0.7 kilograms. Larger biogas plants generate and feed electricity into mainstream power grids. Smaller biogas production units can support lighting and cooking requirements
• Environmental benefits on a global scale: Biogas plants significantly lower the greenhouse effects on the earth’s atmosphere. The plants lower methane emissions by entrapping the harmful gas and using it as fuel.
• The technology is cheaper and much simpler than those for other biofuels, and it is ideal for small scale application.
• Recovery of the product (methane) is spontaneous as the gas automatically separates from the substrates.
• Organic pollutants are removed from the environment and used to generate useful biogas; this helps clean up the environment.
• Biogas is suitable for heating boilers, firing brick and cement kilns, and for running suitably modified internal combustion engines [ 7 ]
Where does Renewable Energy Stand for within Energy Market?
Renewable energy sources account a big opportunity for lowcarbon or zero-carbon power generation. The most common agreement on this matter is Kyoto Protocol. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.
Different mechanisms are envisaged at the Kyoto Protocol to reduce the amount of carbon emissions. Under the Treaty, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Kyoto Protocol offers them an additional means of meeting their targets through mechanisms. The Kyoto mechanisms, emissions trading (known as “the carbon market”), clean development mechanism (CDM) and joint implementation (JI) help stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a cost-effective way. The carbon market is a key tool for reducing emissions worldwide. It was worth $30 billion in 2006 and is growing [ 8 ] .
Coal and biomass are the most widespread indigenous energy sources of developing countries. The main three components of energy for sustainable development are sufficent energy resources , technical applications and economical feasibility of the technologies and being environment friendly . Global warming , low reserves of oil and corresponding increase in prices has led to the diversitification of energy resources and a considerable in energy technology .
Solar , wind and biomass are the most attractive subsectores of alternative energy . The summary view of each technology , ranking it with regards to its growth outlook , addressable market , cost structure and development is given below as Figure 1 . Based on this , it is believed that solar , wind and biomass share the best outlook , as all there are already commercial and benefit from a strong demand .
Figure 1 : The summary view of each technology , ranking it with regards to its growth outlook , addressable market , cost structure and development
Also “biomass shall mean the biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste”.
Directive also clearly defines “electricity produced from renewable energy sources shall mean electricity produced by plants using only renewable energy sources, as well as the proportion of electricity produced from renewable sources in hybrid plants also using conventional energy sources and including renewable electricity used for filling storage systems, and excluding electricity produced as a result of storage systems.” [ 9 ]
Solar, wind and biomass are the most attractive subsectors of alternative energy. The summary view of each technology, ranking it with regards to its growth outlook, addressable market, cost structure, and development is given above. Based on this, it is believed that solar, wind and biomass share the best outlook, as all three are already commercial and benefit from a strong demand.
As for biomass, it is the cheapest source of alternative energy if the waste-disposal savings are taken into consideration, and is cost competitive with coal-fired baseload power. Renewables have two major disadvantages compared with fossil and nuclear fuels. First, renewables, with the notable exceptions of hydropower and geothermal power, tend to be less reliable sources of energy supply. Second, the cost of producing energy from renewable sources is generally uncompetitive at prevailing input prices and capital costs.
At this point, wind and geothermal are the only renewable technologies for electric generation that can be installed at a cost per unit capacity equal to that of coal, the World’s main source
of baseload power. The capital cost of biomass plants, offshore wind farms, and other renewable technologies, with the exception of hydropower, is far higher than the capital cost of coal generation, per megawatt (MW) of generating capacity. The comparison table is given below as Figure 2 .
Figure 2 : The comparison table about energy resources
Construction cost is only one element of the total cost of electric generation. Efficiency matters: the average wind turbine is expected to operate at only 35% of capacity, versus 85% for a coal plant, so the effective installed cost of wind turbines is much higher than the base cost. Most installations involving renewable technologies are expected to have much shorter plant lives than the 40 years assumed for the average coal or nuclear plant, further increasing the relative capital cost of renewable generation.
Waste within Biomass as A Multiplier for Benefit
Among the renewable resources, waste has been identified one of the promising energy source. Before the energy, we should examine the consequences on the waste issue.
Waste is an unavoidable phenomenon that increases by time, technology and population. It is applicable for every human being in the World. First of everything, the managers responsible for the waste must dispose it without any concern to make benefit of.
There are mainly four generations of waste disposal:
• First generation – Landfilling: The oldest way of disposal distinguishes by wild dumping and organized landfills from each other.
• Second generation – Biogas: Biogas technologies derived from the fact that methane (CH4) shall be extracted from the waste piles in order to prevent explosions.
• Third generation – Composting: Composting requires different methods in order to extract the organic content of the waste in order to be used as fertilizers.
• Fourth generation – Thermal process – Incineration and gasification are the most known methods of disposal.
The main concerns even at organized (or regular) landfills, not mentioning of the wild dumping that is a catastrophe for the environment, that landfills;
• Produce greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly CO2 and CH4,
• Leak black liquor that pollutes ground water,
• Produce smell,
• Invites birds, pesticides and rodents that carry microbes &
• pollutants to the housing areas,
• Pollutes the landfill area.
Recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) offers various significant benefits. It prevents the emission of many GHG and water pollutants, saves energy, supplies valuable raw materials to industry, creates jobs, stimulates the development of greener technologies, conserves resources of the World, and reduces the need for new landfills and combustors. With the rising global warming threat, MSW recycling, reducing GHG emissions, will gain even further importance. The recycle rate of different types of MSW varies widely. The recycle rate of auto batteries is very close to 100%, whereas recycling of glass containers is not a common practice with a recycle rate of 25.3%. [ 10 ]
Electrical energy, which is the main input of economic and social life, should be generated sufficiently and permanently in such a way that supporting social progress and development should be ensured. The sustainability of the social progress and development aimed is dependent on taking the necessary precautions for protecting the environment during this generation. Significant developments have been achieved recently in combustion technologies of coal, which is the most common source of electricity generation and presumed to maintain its popularity in the short and long term, to generate electricity efficiently and in compliance with environmental protection principles. [ 11 ]
Both decrase costs and protect environment
The population growth rank of developing countries is higer than other countries . Thus population can be big factor to develop if this use . Especially developing as economic. These countries have obligation military service , but this service is only for men ( exceed some developing countries ) . Population , empowering women and gender – equality may be main concepts for developing countries. For exampke obligation service can’t be only for men , that can be with women and also not only for military service. People will be a street cleaner or a separator in a waste separating plant . By this way women starts to take their positions more and more . In addition to goverments don’t have to pay for cleaners . Also some developing countries women aren’t empowered yet but by this way that can change.
Conservative developing countries mustn’t give any permission for empowering women ; but the countries can try to create more alternative ways as green tax . Everyone have to separate their wastes at their houses , schools and offices. By this way goverments don’t have to create any employment for separating wastes. In this way goverments can make discounts or not to take any taxes from anyone .
Both produce energy and protect environment
Big biomass capacity to consist of farms . When taken dungs to be used for producing biogas, fertizilers start to get rich by this way . Farmers take their dungs after this processing that use it , farmers can get yield much more to grow agriculture products .
Nowadays, it is possible to generate much more electricity with less coal, and reduce the amount of waste resulting from combustion significantly and dispose this minimum amount of waste by using high-tech disposal systems without causing any environmental pollution.
In consequence with all these technological developments, many coal power plant projects have been put into practise whose combustion efficiency and disposability is pretty high. One of the facilities which generate energy by considering protection of environment is İSKEN Sugözü Power Plant operating in Yumurtalık, Adana , Turkey .
İSKEN Sugözü Power Plant, which is one of the most important international investments of Turkey and which utilizes hard coal of high calorific value and low ash and sulphur content,
supports sustainable development of Turkey by its production compliant with environment, high-tech combustion technology and developed environmental protection systems.
Total installed capacity of İSKEN Sugözü Power Plant is 1320 MW and it generates approximately 10 billion kWh electricity in a year. This is the first coal fired power plant which provides all legal permits and certificates and maintains continuous execution of relevant requirements and it is a leading facility in its sector by means of international applications of technological and environmental procedures. İSKEN; in line with principle of sustainable development it has adopted, besides conducting its activities caring for protecting the environment, also supports projects in the fields of vitalizing local economy and improving local social capacity. With business management understandings and applications that are sensitive to the environment and people, İSKEN is accepted as an integral part of the region, and has made many social, economic and cultural contributions to the region to date. [ 12 ]
Producing biogas with organic waste
There is an increasing trend around %7.5 in our country’s electric energy demand.
According to Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources data, as of 2008, our energy production capability is 41.987 MW and consumption 19.4 billion kWh. In 2008 our electric production is supplied from three main sources, consisting of %48.17 natural gas, %28.98 coal and %16.77 hydroelectricity. With the increasing electricity demand, our established energy production should be at least doubled by 2020. The money Turkey spends on petroleum, petroleum products, natural Gas, LPG and coal will increase every day, bound to her energy needs. The actualization of medium and long term vision programme in compliance with Turkey’s national, politic and economic interests holds great importance. Efficient, productive, safe and sensible utilization of energy resources and reducing the country’s external dependence has to be aimed. Energy became one of the most expensive production inputs today, when conventional energy resources started to dwindle. For this very reason, all the developed and developing countries have inclined towards new and renewable energy resources. These resources seem to serves as an alternative to conventional energy resources. [ 13 ]
One of the renewable energy resources is biomass energy. Most of developing countries are richer considering biomass energy potential. In this context, organic, vegetal, animal and industrial waste should be put off from polluting the nature and damaging health; and economic and applicable solutions must be presented. There should be opportunities given to convert waste materials into energy and prevent its loss which is a very valuable resources for its organic structure and contents.
Producing electricity in a metropolitian city with organic and inroganic wastes by biomass technics;
Daily waste quantity , arising from both population and industrial activities , eached up to 15000 tonnes in Istanbul , Turkey and said quantity is unfortunately increasingly day by day . This situation allows requirement of more suitable alternative disposal methods condidering environmental aspects . Biogas production from organic wastes under anaerobic circumstances plays an important role among such alternative methods .
Due to recycling of renewable energy and stabilization of waste anaerobic treatment for organic part of domestic solid waste ( biomethanization ) is deemed to be common especially in Turkey , as well . Treatment for organic part of solid waste performed by anaerobic biological methods is considered to be such a rather effective treatment alternative .
In this scope , biomenthanization plant with capacity of 45000 tonnes per year is considered to be established on the European Side of Istanbul by Istanbul Metropolitian Municipality titled ISTAC A.S . Although design of plant differs in comparison to patent companies , plant generally consists of similar units . Organic wates separetly collected shall be conveyed to this plant and disposed of accordingly . By means of such project , organic wastes shall be ensured to be decayed under anaerobic environment and biogas produced due to such process shall be converted into heat and electric energy in cogeneration engines . Fermented waste arisen shall be utilizes so as to plant parks and gardens . Accordingly , target of this plant to produce electricity by biogas technics with 5400000 m3 , electricity amounting to 8450 MW and fermented dung amounting to 52000 tonnes . Plant shall be designed considering modular structure and allow expansion in future periods .
In this regard , biomenthanization plant to be established by Istanbul Metropolitian Municipality titled ISTAC A.S play an important role in order to achieve mentioned goals with regard to collect organic wastes separately from industrial plants producing organis wastes in large quantity and from fruit-vegetable market and to dispose of wastes obtained from regions of which contents are high through mechanical sorting method and to acquire biogas due to such methods. [ 14 ]
Both become contemporary in education and save nature
Education ministeries have to change education curriculum for saving nature teach to how can do that . Ministeries must support students with teachers to search new methods , appricate them to student with their families . Especially ministeries have to add new concept to each lessons as volunteerism . By this way new generation learn to be volunteer and saving and proctecting our world with their families .
Take your place
Goverments , NGOs and all sectors create new campaigns to teach new methods to protect environment and by this way how to produce energy and their importance . For example when people give their separeted wastes to collector of waste . Collectors give soil to them for growning their organic vegetable-fruit or flower at their gardens as hobby . By this way new generation children can learn how to grow vegetables , fruits or flowers that helps to correct their psychology . Also that helps to get children to appripriate producing .
Destruction of our planet by reducing with using of the green energy that we will be gained in a greener world . We can stop nature of the massacres that massacre of the tree to establish a nuclear power plant and nuclear waste begins to mix the soil. Furthermore combined with the same denominator people will be more social and more cooperative, and that protects generations of people who love nature will be given the opportunity to grow. Sustainable development of developing countries are provided by making possible with basic concepts that can take more clearly and forward-looking results. Existing resources in the world is reusing cause to be highest level of human factors to develop and help to develop concepts by Prof. Ibrahim Dincer’s searching about sustainable development as 3E loop : Energy , Environment and Economy . Moreover these basic concepts interact the education that helps to accelerate developing for these countries. That is possible energy of our needing to produce energy with renewable energy resources not for only high damage energy sources. Further that is possible with people helping.
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ISBN 0-615-13438-6, retrieved 2007-02-07
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